Harvey Wollman stands alone

IMG_7726
Gov. Harvey Wollman and Gov. Dennis Daugaard, at the 2015 Buffalo Roundup in Custer State Park.
It was good this week to see Gov. Harvey Wollman at the Buffalo Roundup in Custer State Park. Gov. Wollman was kind enough to introduce himself to my son, Henry, who is named after my grandfather, State Sen. Henry Poppen. Grandpa Poppen and Harvey Wollman sat across the aisle from each other in the State Senate in the 1970s.

Harvey Wollman is already SD’s only living Democratic governor or lieutenant governor. This week, Wollman also became the only living Democrat to have served as the SD Senate Majority Leader, due to the sad passing of Roger McKellips of Alcester last month, and of Homer Kandaras of Rapid City this week.

(I wrote recently about McKellips and other longtime legislators in the post, Old Bulls of the SD Legislature.)

McKellips had been Senate Majority Leader when the Democrats controlled the State Senate in 1993-94. Kandaras was Senate Majority Leader in 1975-76; he followed Wollman as Majority Leader after Wollman was elected lieutenant governor.

Like Wollman, there is only one living Democrat who has served as House Majority Leader, Larry Piersol of Sioux Falls. Piersol is now a federal judge on senior status. There is also only one living Democrat to have served as House Speaker, Gene Lebrun of Rapid City. Piersol and Lebrun both held their leadership positions in 1973-74. The House was split 35-35 for those two sessions, and House rules dictated that the Democrats, as the party of the sitting governor, were deemed to be the “majority” party.

Democratic majority leaders are rare in South Dakota because Democratic control of a legislative chamber is rare. Since statehood:

  • 1891: A coalition of Democrats and populist “Independents” controlled the State House. There were 20 Democrats and 44 populists in the coalition, and 58 Republicans in the minority.
  • 1897: The Populist/Democratic “fusion” ticket elected Andrew E. Lee as governor, and also won narrow control of both legislative houses. The Senate had 20 Populists, 2 Democrats, and 21 Republicans for a 1-seat majority. The House had 35 Populists, 10 Democrats, and 39 Republicans for a 6-seat margin.
  • 1933-37: The first time Democrats won control with a Populist coalition was during the Great Depression. In 1932, Tom Berry was elected governor and Democrats won control of both houses. Democrats controlled the House and the Senate in 1933 and 1935. (In this era, the Legislature only met every other year.) After the 1936 election, Republicans won back control of the House, but Democrats retained control of the 1937 Senate by a 1-seat martin.
  • 1959: Ralph Herseth was elected governor in 1958, and on his coattails Democrats won control of the Senate 20-15. Herseth had been the first Democrat to be considered “Senate Minority Leader,” and his successor Art Jones was the first Democrat to be the Senate Majority Leader. The House remained Republican and the House Speaker, Archie Gubbrud, defeated Herseth for reelection in 1960 as Republicans retook both houses.
  • 1973-76: Dick Kneip was elected governor in 1970, and in 1972 voters rewarded him with a Democratic legislature by the narrowest possible margin. Democrats held the Senate 18-17, with Harvey Wollman as Majority Leader. As noted above, the House was a 35-35 tie and Democrats won the “tie-breaker” of a Democratic governor. Larry Piersol was Majority Leader and Gene Lebrun was House Speaker. In 1974, Kneip was reelected, but Republicans won two House seats to take a 37-33 majority. Democrats picked up a Senate seat, expanding their narrow margin to 19-16. Wollman had been elected lieutenant governor and Homer Kandaras became Majority Leader. Republicans retook control of the House in 1976, and have held it ever since.
  • 1993-94: Democrats won a State Senate majority of 20-15 in 1992, with Lars Herseth becoming President Pro Tempore and Roger McKellips becoming Majority Leader. Gov. George S. Mickelson was in the final two years of his term; he died in 1993 and Walter Dale Miller served as governor during the 1994 session. Republicans retook Senate control in 1994, as Bill Janklow returned as governor, and have held it ever since.

In recent years, Democrats made gains in 2006 and 2008. They peaked in the Senate in 2007-08, with the Republican majority narrowed to 20-15. Senate Minority Leader Scott Heidepriem, who had led the expanded Democratic caucus, ran for governor in 2010, but was defeated by Lt. Governor Dennis Daugaard as Republicans retook strong legislative majorities: 30-5 in the Senate and 50-19 in the House. In the time since, Republican supermajorities have strengthened, most recently 29-6 in the Senate and 60-10 in the House.

It appears that 2018 will see Senate Minority Leader Billie Sutton, a Democrat from Burke, attempt against long odds to win the Governor’s Office and to increase Democrat influence in the legislature.

Advertisements

Oldest and Youngest SD GOV’s

The three major candidates for Governor of South Dakota are Republicans Kristi Noem and Marty Jackley and Democrat Billie Sutton.  In earlier posts, this blog looked at various historical milestones each candidate has reached, or would reach if elected.  (You can see those here:  Jackley, Noem, and Sutton.)

Although Sutton is an underdog to the eventual Republican nominee, if elected he would set a milestone as the youngest governor in South Dakota history, taking office at age 34 and breaking Richard F. Kneip’s record of 37.  This potential milestone has been mentioned by bloggers including Tom Lawrence and Cory Heidelberger.

Heidelberger also calculated the age of each governor upon assuming office.  A similar chart is provided below, ranking each of the state’s 32 governors by age:

# Governor Date of birth Date of inaugural Age at inaugural
29 Walter Dale Miller October 05, 1925 April 19, 1993 67 yrs, 196 days
13 Warren E. Green March 10, 1869 January 06, 1931 61 yrs, 302 days
11 Carl Gunderson June 20, 1864 January 06, 1925 60 yrs, 200 days
12 W. J. Bulow January 13, 1869 January 04, 1927 57 yrs, 356 days
32 Dennis Daugaard June 11, 1953 January 08, 2011 57 yrs, 211 days
16 Harlan J. Bushfield August 06, 1882 January 03, 1939 56 yrs, 150 days
30 William J. Janklow September 13, 1939 January 07, 1995 55 yrs, 116 days
17 M. Q. Sharpe January 11, 1888 January 05, 1943 54 yrs, 359 days
8 Frank M. Byrne October 23, 1858 January 07, 1913 54 yrs, 76 days
14 Tom Berry April 23, 1879 January 03, 1933 53 yrs, 255 days
2 Charles H. Sheldon September 12, 1840 January 03, 1893 52 yrs, 113 days
23 Nils A. Boe September 10, 1913 January 05, 1965 51 yrs, 117 days
7 Robert S. Vessey May 16, 1858 January 05, 1909 50 yrs, 234 days
22 Archie Gubbrud December 31, 1910 January 03, 1961 50 yrs, 3 days
3 Andrew E. Lee March 18, 1847 January 01, 1897 49 yrs, 289 days
21 Ralph E. Herseth July 02, 1909 January 06, 1959 49 yrs, 188 days
6 Coe I. Crawford January 14, 1858 January 08, 1907 48 yrs, 359 days
5 Samuel H. Elrod May 01, 1856 January 03, 1905 48 yrs, 247 days
31 M. Michael Rounds October 24, 1954 January 07, 2003 48 yrs, 75 days
1 Arthur C. Mellette June 23, 1842 November 02, 1889 47 yrs, 132 days
19 Sigurd Anderson January 22, 1904 January 02, 1951 46 yrs, 345 days
9 Peter Norbeck August 27, 1870 January 07, 1917 46 yrs, 133 days
28 George S. Mickelson January 31, 1941 January 06, 1987 45 yrs, 340 days
15 Leslie Jensen September 15, 1892 January 05, 1937 44 yrs, 112 days
10 William H. McMaster May 10, 1877 January 04, 1921 43 yrs, 239 days
18 George T. Mickelson July 23, 1903 January 07, 1947 43 yrs, 168 days
4 Charles N. Herreid October 20, 1857 January 08, 1901 43 yrs, 80 days
26 Harvey L. Wollman May 14, 1935 July 24, 1978 43 yrs, 71 days
24 Frank Farrar April 02, 1929 January 07, 1969 39 yrs, 280 days
20 Joe Foss April 17, 1915 January 04, 1955 39 yrs, 262 days
27 William J. Janklow September 13, 1939 January 01, 1979 39 yrs, 110 days
25 Richard F. Kneip January 07, 1933 January 05, 1971 37 yrs, 363 days

Notes:  This chart calculates the age at which each governor first took office.  It does not include second or third consecutive terms.  William J. Janklow is listed twice – once when he took office in 1979, and again when he returned to office in 1995.  Unlike Heidelberger’s chart, this chart does not attempt to include “months” in the age, as a “month” is not a standard length.

29 Miller
SD’s oldest governor, Walter Dale Miller

The oldest governor, Walter Dale Miller, was 67 when he succeeded to office upon the death of Gov. George S. Mickelson.  The oldest elected governor was Warren E. Green, who was 61 when he took office in 1931.  The three oldest elected governors – Gunderson, Bulow, and Green, served in a row from 1925 to 1933.

Likewise, three of the four youngest governors – Farrar, Kneip, and Janklow – were elected consecutively in the 1960s and 1970s.

Here is the same chart again, inserting Noem, Jackley, and Sutton in their prospective places:

# Governor Date of birth Date of inaugural Age at inaugural
29 Walter Dale Miller October 05, 1925 April 19, 1993 67 yrs, 196 days
13 Warren E. Green March 10, 1869 January 06, 1931 61 yrs, 302 days
11 Carl Gunderson June 20, 1864 January 06, 1925 60 yrs, 200 days
12 W. J. Bulow January 13, 1869 January 04, 1927 57 yrs, 356 days
32 Dennis Daugaard June 11, 1953 January 08, 2011 57 yrs, 211 days
16 Harlan J. Bushfield August 06, 1882 January 03, 1939 56 yrs, 150 days
30 William J. Janklow September 13, 1939 January 07, 1995 55 yrs, 116 days
17 M. Q. Sharpe January 11, 1888 January 05, 1943 54 yrs, 359 days
8 Frank M. Byrne October 23, 1858 January 07, 1913 54 yrs, 76 days
14 Tom Berry April 23, 1879 January 03, 1933 53 yrs, 255 days
2 Charles H. Sheldon September 12, 1840 January 03, 1893 52 yrs, 113 days
23 Nils A. Boe September 10, 1913 January 05, 1965 51 yrs, 117 days
7 Robert S. Vessey May 16, 1858 January 05, 1909 50 yrs, 234 days
22 Archie Gubbrud December 31, 1910 January 03, 1961 50 yrs, 3 days
3 Andrew E. Lee March 18, 1847 January 01, 1897 49 yrs, 289 days
21 Ralph E. Herseth July 02, 1909 January 06, 1959 49 yrs, 188 days
6 Coe I. Crawford January 14, 1858 January 08, 1907 48 yrs, 359 days
5 Samuel H. Elrod May 01, 1856 January 03, 1905 48 yrs, 247 days
33? Marty J. Jackley October 13, 1970 January 05, 2019 48 yrs, 84 days
31 M. Michael Rounds October 24, 1954 January 07, 2003 48 yrs, 75 days
1 Arthur C. Mellette June 23, 1842 November 02, 1889 47 yrs, 132 days
33? Kristi Noem November 30, 1971 January 05, 2019 47 yrs, 36 days
19 Sigurd Anderson January 22, 1904 January 02, 1951 46 yrs, 345 days
9 Peter Norbeck August 27, 1870 January 07, 1917 46 yrs, 133 days
28 George S. Mickelson January 31, 1941 January 06, 1987 45 yrs, 340 days
15 Leslie Jensen September 15, 1892 January 05, 1937 44 yrs, 112 days
10 William H. McMaster May 10, 1877 January 04, 1921 43 yrs, 239 days
18 George T. Mickelson July 23, 1903 January 07, 1947 43 yrs, 168 days
4 Charles N. Herreid October 20, 1857 January 08, 1901 43 yrs, 80 days
26 Harvey L. Wollman May 14, 1935 July 24, 1978 43 yrs, 71 days
24 Frank Farrar April 02, 1929 January 07, 1969 39 yrs, 280 days
20 Joe Foss April 17, 1915 January 04, 1955 39 yrs, 262 days
27 William J. Janklow September 13, 1939 January 01, 1979 39 yrs, 110 days
25 Richard F. Kneip January 07, 1933 January 05, 1971 37 yrs, 363 days
33? Billie H. Sutton March 16, 1984 January 05, 2019 34 yrs, 295 days

Sutton would be 34 years, 295 days old – more than three years younger than Dick Kneip was – if he took office on January 5, 2019.  (Although a new governor can take office any time after the New Year, traditionally the inauguration is held on the first Saturday in January.)

Noem would be 47 years, 36 days old, and as the first female governor she would nearly the same age as the first male governor, Arthur C. Mellette, who was also 47 when he took office on the day that South Dakota became a state, November 2, 1889.

Jackley would be 48 years, 84 days old, only 9 days older than Mike Rounds when he took office in 2003.  Jackley first came to Pierre in 2009 when Gov. Rounds appointed him as attorney general to replace Larry Long, who had been appointed a circuit judge.

On Kneip and Wollman

Earlier today, Cory Heidelberger at Dakota Free Press had a post about the fact that, if elected, Billie Sutton would be South Dakota’s youngest governor, exceeding Richard F. Kneip’s record by about three years.  This blog had noted this potential milestone after Sutton announced his candidacy last week.

Heidelberger’s post, though its history is for the most part accurate, included one small inaccuracy.  At one point, Heidelberger wrote:

The youngest man so far to win election to the Governor’s chair is Dick Kneip, who was 37 years, 11 months, and 29 days when he took office in 1971. Kneip was also a Democrat, and he teamed with a Democrat two years his junior, Harvey Wollman. (Hmm… so to replicate Kneip’s success, what early-30-something does Sutton choose as his running mate?)

The aside about Wollman is not quite correct, insofar as it implies that Wollman was Kneip’s running mate in 1970.

25 Kneip
Gov. Richard F. Kneip on the Trail of Governors

In fact, when Kneip was first elected in 1970, South Dakota still elected the governor and lieutenant governor separately.  Kneip was the Democratic nominee for governor, defeating incumbent Republican Gov. Frank Farrar.  The Democratic nominee for lieutenant governor was Bill Dougherty of Sioux Falls, who defeated the Republican nominee, Dr. Bob Bartron of Watertown.

At that time, South Dakota still had two-year terms, and in 1972 Kneip and Dougherty were both reelected, again on separate tickets.  That same year, voters approved a new executive article to the constitution, which changed the term for the governor and other state constitutional officers to 4 years, beginning in 1974.  The amendment also provided for the governor and LG to be elected on a ticket.
Originally, it was assumed that Kneip, having served two 2-year terms, was not eligible to run again in 1974.  In fact, Lt. Governor Bill Dougherty ran for governor in 1974, originally on the assumption.  Kneip went to court however, and the South Dakota Supreme Court held that he was entitled to two 2-year terms AND two 4-year terms – in short, the court held that the term-limit reset because the term changed.  (The case is Kneip v. Herseth.  “Herseth” was Secretary of State Lorna Herseth, who refused to place Kneip on the ballot.  She was a former first lady and wife of Gov. Ralph Herseth, mother to Lars Herseth, and grandmother to Stephanie Herseth Sandlin.)
So Kneip sought a third term – his first four-year term – in 1974, and easily defeated Lt. Governor Dougherty in the Democratic primary.
26 Wollman
Gov. Harvey Wollman on the Trail of Governors

Not surprisingly, Dougherty did not run as Kneip’s running mate following that defeat.  Harvey Wollman, who was the Democratic Leader in the Senate, let Kneip know that Wollman would seek the Democratic nomination at the state convention, and Kneip gave him his blessing.  The Democratic convention nominated Wollman over State Sen. Grace Mickelson of Rapid City, and the Kneip/Wollman ticket prevailed in 1974 over a Republican ticket of John Olson of Sioux Falls and Eddie Clay of Hot Springs.

Kneip resigned in 1978 to become U.S. Ambassador to Singapore, and Wollman served for five months as governor.  A month before he succeeded to the governor’s chair, Wollman had narrowly lost the 1978 Democratic gubernatorial primary to Roger McKellips of Alcester.  McKellips’ running mate was State Sen. Billie H. Sutton, grandfather and namesake of the current Democratic candidate.  The McKellips/Sutton ticket lost in November to a ticket of Bill Janklow and Lowell Hansen, beginning the Republican gubernatorial winning streak that the younger Sutton now seeks to end in 2018.