SD Governors’ alma maters

Of the 31 men who have served as Governor of South Dakota, 20 have held at least one college degree.  The complete list is below, but here are a few observations:

  • The University of South Dakota by far leads the list, with 10 graduates having served as governor.
  • Only two other South Dakota universities have even one governor as a graduate:  South Dakota State University and the now-closed Huron College have one each.
  • Besides USD, the only other university that can claim more than one governor as a graduate is the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Seven South Dakota governors hold degrees from current members of the Big Ten conference, reflecting that many of the state’s early leaders came from Midwestern states such as Iowa and Wisconsin.
Old Main USD
Old Main at the University of South Dakota, alma mater of 10 South Dakota governors.

Here is the complete list:

  • University of South Dakota, Vermillion SD (10) – Carl Gunderson, Leslie Jensen, M. Q. Sharpe, George T. Mickelson, Sigurd Anderson, Joe Foss, Frank Farrar, Bill Janklow, George S. Mickelson, Dennis Daugaard
  • University of Wisconsin, Madison WI (2) – Charles Herreid, Nils Boe
  • Indiana University, Bloomington IN (1) – Arthur C. Mellette
  • DePauw University, Greencastle IN (1) – Samuel H. Elrod
  • University of Iowa, Iowa City IA (1) – Coe Crawford
  • Beloit College, Beloit WI (1) – William McMaster
  • University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI (1) – W. J. Bulow
  • University of Minnesota, St. Paul MN (1) – Harlan J. Bushfield
  • Huron College, Huron SD (1) – Harvey Wollman
  • South Dakota State University, Brookings SD (1) – Mike Rounds
  • Northwestern University, Evanston IL (1) – Dennis Daugaard

Several of those listed earned more than one degree from the same university.  Dennis Daugaard is the only SD governor to hold degrees from two different universities; he earned his undergraduate degree at USD and his law degree at Northwestern University.

Eleven South Dakota governors did not hold a college degree:  Charles Sheldon, Andrew E. Lee, Robert S. Vessey, Frank M. Byrne, Peter Norbeck, Warren E. Green, Tom Berry, Ralph Herseth, Archie Gubbrud, Richard F. Kneip, and Walter Dale Miller.  Some of them attended college but did not complete a degree; for example, Norbeck attended USD, Kneip attended South Dakota State College and St. John’s University, and Miller attended the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.  (A more complete list is below).

Among the 2018 gubernatorial contenders, Kristi Noem would follow Mike Rounds as the second Jackrabbit governor.  She attended Northern State University but left after her father died in a farming accident.  Noem took courses in Watertown through Mount Marty College and later completed her degree at SDSU.

Marty Jackley and Billie Sutton would both be the first graduate of their respective alma maters to serve as South Dakota governor.  Jackley earned his electrical engineering degree from the SD School of Mines and Technology (as well as a law degree from USD).  Sutton is a graduate of the University of Wyoming.

Here is a list of college and universities which SD governors attended, but from which they did not graduate.  It may not be a complete list:

  • Herreid – Galesville University, Galesville WI (later Gale College, it closed in 1939)
  • Vessey – Oshkosh (WI) Commercial College
  • Norbeck – USD
  • Gunderson – Cornell University, Ithaca NY
  • Bushfield – Dakota Wesleyan University
  • Sharpe – International Correspondence School; Kansas City (MO) Night School of Law
  • Anderson – South Dakota State College (now SDSU)
  • Foss – Sioux Falls College (now University of Sioux Falls); Augustana College (now Augustana University)
  • Herseth – North Dakota State College (now NDSU); Northern State College (now NSU)
  • Kneip – South Dakota State College, St. John’s University, Collegeville MN
  • Wollman – Bethel College, St. Paul MN
  • Miller – SD School of Mines and Technology

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New Trail of Governors statues

On June 16, 2017, the Trail of Governors unveiled new statues of Govs. Tom Berry, Leslie Jensen, Sigurd Anderson, and Joe Foss at the State Capitol.  Family and friends of all four former governors attended the unveiling, as well as Gov. Dennis Daugaard and former governors Frank Farrar and Mike Rounds.

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Tom Berry was a Mellette County rancher, known for his folksy humor.  While running for governor during the Depression-era election of 1932, Berry promised to “take an axe” to the state budget, and after he was elected he cut state spending by twenty-five percent.  His sculpture by John Lopez portrays these traits – Berry poses in a cowboy hat and western suit, smiling as he leans upon a fencepost, holding his “budget-cutting” axe in his hand.  The statue is slated to stand in downtown Pierre, joining Peter Norbeck, Nils Boe, and Harvey Wollman at the corner of Pierre Street and Dakota Avenue. In the meantime he is on display at the Cultural Heritage Center.

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The statue of Leslie Jensen pays tribute to Jensen’s service in World War I.  A member of the South Dakota National Guard, Jensen’s unit was deployed to patrol the Texas-Mexico border in 1916, and then to France during World War I in 1918.  After he served as governor, Jensen’s unit was once again activated for service in World War II, with Jensen in command.  He served in Australia and, after contracting malaria, was transferred to General Douglas MacArthur’s headquarters.  Sculptor James Van Nuys portrayed Jensen in his World War I-era uniform, and the statue will be erected in front of the Soldiers and Sailors World War Memorial Building, which is the state’s memorial to World War I.  Until the Capitol Avenue construction is completed in September, Jensen will be on temporary display at the South Dakota National Guard museum.

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Sigurd Anderson was an old-fashioned orator, and South Dakotans would travel from miles around to hear Anderson’s lengthy speeches.  He also loved people.  Anderson never forgot a name or a face, and as his daughter put it, “Where two or more were gathered,” Anderson would be present to speak.  Sculptor James Michael Maher captures Anderson’s friendliness, his love for people, and his skill as an orator with his statue.  After the unveiling, Maher took the Anderson statue back to his studio for finish work.  It will be on temporary display at the Cultural Heritage Center until street construction is completed this fall, at which time it will be installed in front the Sigurd Anderson Building on Capitol Avenue.

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Joe Foss wore many hats throughout his life:  governor, football commissioner, NRA president, and outdoors television host.  But he earned his reputation, as well as the Congressional Medal of Honor, for his heroism as a naval aviator at Guadalcanal during World War II.  Sculptors Lee Leuning and Sherri Treeby chose to portray Joe Foss in this defining role:  wearing his flight suit, staring up at the horizon for enemy planes.  His statue will be on temporary display at the South Dakota National Guard museum until this fall, when it will be installed in front of the Joe Foss Building on Capitol Avenue.

Gov. Sigurd Anderson: Trail of Governors Class of 2017

This Friday, June 16, the Trail of Governors is unveiling four new statues:  Tom Berry, Leslie Jensen, Sigurd Anderson and Joe Foss.  In anticipation of the unveiling, this blog is featuring short biographical sketches of the four governors.  The sketches were originally written for the Trail’s website.

(Updated with a picture of the new Sigurd Anderson sculpture.)

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Gov. Sigurd Anderson, Trail of Governors statue by sculptor James Michael Maher

Governor Sigurd Anderson, one of two South Dakota governors to be born in another country, was born in 1904 in Arendel, Norway. He came with his family to the United States at age three, and settled in Lincoln County near Canton. Anderson attended rural schools and graduated in 1925 from Augustana Academy, a Lutheran high school in Canton. Anderson didn’t speak English until he attended school and struggled to overcome his Norwegian accent, but later remarked that “a little Norwegian went a long way with South Dakota voters.”

 

Anderson graduated from the University of South Dakota in 1931 and, after teaching history at Rapid City and Webster, returned to USD and earned his law degree. In 1937, Anderson married Vivian Walz. The couple had one child, Kristin.

After law school, Anderson returned to Webster where he opened a law practice. He served as Day County State’s Attorney and as an assistant attorney general. Anderson suspended his practice from 1943 to 1946 to serve as a legal officer in the U.S. Navy during World War II.

Anderson returned from his war service and was elected Attorney General in 1946. He led an effort to target illegal gambling in Deadwood, and was a witness to South Dakota’s only execution by electric chair.

In 1950, Anderson won a competitive Republican gubernatorial primary, and defeated Democrat Joe Robbie in the general election that fall. As a former teacher, Anderson dramatically increased state funding for public schools. He promoted continued development of the Missouri River, serving as chairman of the Missouri River States Committee. Anderson led the state through huge blizzards in 1951-52 and massive floods the following spring, using Air Force planes to airdrop hay to isolated cattle. And he held a “mortgage burning” to celebrate the retirement of the $57 million state debt from the failed Rural Credits program. In 1952, voters reelected Anderson with more than 70% of the vote – the largest share until that time.

After leaving office, Anderson was appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the Federal Trade Commission, on which he served until 1964. Anderson sought a return to the Governor’s Office in 1964, losing the primary narrowly to Lt. Governor Nils Boe. In 1967, he was appointed a state circuit judge, serving in Webster, and held that position until 1975. Anderson died in 1990 and was interred at Webster Cemetery.

Gov. Joe Foss: Trail of Governors Class of 2017

This Friday, June 16, the Trail of Governors is unveiling four new statues:  Tom Berry, Leslie Jensen, Sigurd Anderson and Joe Foss.  In anticipation of the unveiling, this blog is featuring short biographical sketches of the four governors.  The sketches were originally written for the Trail’s website.

(Updated with a picture of the new Joe Foss sculpture.)

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Gov. Joe Foss, Trail of Governors statue by sculptors Lee Leuning & Sherri Treeby

Governor Joseph J. Foss was born in 1915 and grew up on his family’s farm east of Sioux Falls. Foss discovered a fascination with flight after he saw Charles Lindbergh and his airplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, in Sioux Falls in 1927. Foss flew himself for the first time in 1934, when he went on an airplane ride with Spearfish aviator Clyde Ice.

 

Foss’ father was electrocuted and died when he stepped out of his pickup onto a downed power line during an electrical storm. Foss, a senior in high school, left school to run his family farm and work at a meat packing plant. He returned to Sioux Falls Washington High School and graduated once his younger brother could operate the family farm. In 1940, he graduated from the University of South Dakota.

A member of the South Dakota National Guard since 1937, Foss enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps in 1940 and became a naval aviator. Foss downed 26 enemy planes in 63 days at Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater during the World War II, earning the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Flying Cross. A photo of Foss receiving his Medal of Honor from President Franklin D. Roosevelt was featured on the cover of Life magazine.

In 1942, Foss married June Shakstad, and the couple had five children, three of whom lived to adulthood: Cheryl, Mary Joe, and Frank. Two other children, Joe Jr. and Eric, died in infancy.

Returning to Sioux Falls in 1946, Foss founded the South Dakota Air National Guard, attaining the rank of brigadier general. He operated a charter flying service and a Packard automobile dealership. During the Korean War, Foss returned to active duty in the U.S. Air Force, training pilots.

Foss was elected to the State House in 1948. He 1950, he ran for governor, narrowly losing the Republican primary to Sigurd Anderson. In 1952, Foss returned to the State House in 1952, and he was elected governor in 1954.

Governor Foss initiated the first state-directed economic development efforts, using his high profile to promote South Dakota’s favorable business climate around the nation. He signed legislation repealing all state laws that discriminated against Native Americans. Governor Foss built recreation areas on the new Missouri River lakes, and continued aggressive programs of highway construction and expansion of university facilities.

After leaving office in 1959, Foss served from 1959 to 1966 as commissioner of the American Football League, leaving shortly before the league merged with the older National Football League. He hosted outdoor television programs, and served as international chairman of Campus Crusade for Christ and President of the National Rifle Association. In 1967, Foss married Donna “Didi” Hall.

Foss retired to Scottsdale, Arizona, where he died on January 1, 2003. He was interred at Arlington National Cemetery.

Gov. Tom Berry: Trail of Governors Class of 2017

This Friday, June 16, the Trail of Governors is unveiling four new statues:  Tom Berry, Leslie Jensen, Sigurd Anderson and Joe Foss.  In anticipation of the unveiling, this blog is featuring short biographical sketches of the four governors.  The sketches were originally written for the Trail’s website.

(Updated with a picture of the new Tom Berry sculpture.)

 

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Gov. Tom Berry, Trail of Governors statue by sculptor John Lopez

Governor Thomas M. Berry was born in Paddock, Nebraska in 1879 and attended public schools in O’Neill, Nebraska. In 1905, he married Lorena McLain and they had four children: Baxter, Nell, Faye, and Paul.

 

Berry came to South Dakota as a young man, first to Gregory County and then in 1912 to a homestead south of Belvidere in Mellette County. Eventually Berry built his ranch to 30,000 acres, raising Hereford cattle and saddle horses under his “Double X” brand.

Berry served in the State House of Representatives from 1925 to 1931, chairing the livestock committee and the Indian affairs committee. He also served on the Custer State Park board. In 1932, Berry challenged incumbent Governor Warren E. Green and was elected in the Democratic landslide that also elected Franklin D. Roosevelt as president. Berry was reelected in 1934.

Governor Berry was the first governor from West River, and he was known for his folksy, western humor. He took office during the depths of the Great Depression, as massive dust storms created “black blizzards” on the South Dakota plains. Wielding an axe to demonstrate his intentions, Berry cut state spending 25% and ended progressive programs such as the state coal mine, state hail insurance, and the state bonding department. He eliminated the state property tax, created a state income tax, and instituted a state ore tax to take advantage of the Homestake Gold Mine.

Governor Berry was the only governor in the country to personally direct federal New Deal programs in his state. Berry directed the construction of a new Governor’s Mansion on Capitol Lake, as well as hundreds of stock dams throughout the state. After prohibition was repealed, Berry called a special session to write new alcohol laws and institute a tax on alcohol.

Berry sought an unprecedented third term in 1938, but was narrowly defeated by Republican Leslie Jensen. Berry returned to his ranch and ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate in 1938 and 1942. He eventually retired in Rapid City, where he died in 1951. He was interred at Belvidere Cemetery.

Gov. Leslie Jensen: Trail of Governors Class of 2017

This Friday, June 16, the Trail of Governors is unveiling four new statues:  Tom Berry, Leslie Jensen, Sigurd Anderson and Joe Foss.  In anticipation of the unveiling, this blog is featuring short biographical sketches of the four governors.  The sketches were originally written for the Trail’s website.

(Updated with a picture of the new Leslie Jensen sculpture.)

 

Photo Jun 16, 11 34 17 AM copy
Gov. Leslie Jensen, Trail of Governors statue by sculptor James Van Nuys

Governor Leslie Jensen was born in Hot Springs in 1892. His father, Christian, was a Danish immigrant who operated a stagecoach from Rapid City and later owned the People’s Telephone and Telegraph Company in Hot Springs.

 

Jensen attended school in Hot Springs and went to Culver Military Academy in Culver, Indiana. He joined the South Dakota National Guard and was deployed to the Texas-Mexico border in 1916 and then to France during World War I. Following the War, Jensen enrolled at the University of South Dakota, where he earned his law degree in 1921.

Following law school, Jensen became the federal collector of internal revenue for South Dakota, living in Aberdeen from 1922 to 1934. While in Aberdeen, he married Elizabeth Ward, whose father build the landmark Alonzo Ward Hotel. The Jensens had three children: Leslie, Natalie and Karen.

Jensen returned to Hot Springs, where he operated his family’s telephone business. The Jensen family also built and operated the Blue Bell Lodge in Custer State Park, which Jensen sold to the state in 1935.

In 1936, with no prior elected experience, Jensen ran for governor. He won an upset victory over incumbent Governor Tom Berry, who was seeking an unprecedented third term.

As a businessman, Governor Jensen strengthened state finances through increased taxes, cuts in state spending, and a reduction in state-held debt. As the only governor from the Black Hills, he emphasized tourism promotion. Governor Jensen also promoted highway construction and founded the precursor to the South Dakota Highway Patrol.

In 1938, Governor Jensen declined a second term and instead ran for U.S. Senate, but narrowly lost the Republican primary. In 1940, as American involvement in World War II loomed, Jensen’s National Guard unit was activated, with Jensen commanding the unit. He deployed to Australia, where he contracted malaria, and was reassigned to General Douglas MacArthur’s Australian headquarters.

After the War, Jensen returned to Hot Springs and resumed his business. He died in 1964, after he sustained injuries in a car accident on Highway 79, and was interred in Hot Springs.

Special Legislative Sessions in South Dakota

Earlier today, Governor Dennis Daugaard called a special legislative session for Monday, June 12, 2017, to address recreational access on non-meandered waters.  

Photo Oct 14, 1 10 51 PMMonday’s special session will be the 26th in South Dakota history, each of which was called by the governor at the time.  (Although a 1990 constitutional amendment created a process whereby the legislature can call itself into session, this mechanism has never been used.  As a practical matter, it is much easier for the governor to call the session, meaning that the legislative mechanism would only be used if a governor refused to cooperate.)

Prior to 1963, the State Legislature only met every other year, in the odd-numbered years following a general election.  Particularly during the activist Progressive era, this led to a few special “general sessions” – sessions called in the off-year to handle numerous legislative topics.

Here is a list of the past special sessions, with a brief description of the topics covered:

October 15-17, 1889 – Just days prior to South Dakota statehood on November 2, 1889, the first State Legislature met in special session to organize and elect officers.

February 8-11, 1916 – Gov. Frank Byrne called a special session to pass an amended primary election law, and to propose a constitutional amendment relating to state rural credit loans, a state coal mine, and state road construction.

peternorbeck_r-sd
Peter Norbeck

March 18-23, 1918 – Gov. Peter Norbeck called a general session amidst U.S. entry into World War I.  Legislators ratified the federal 18th Amendment enacting the prohibition of alcohol, provided for women’s suffrage and for voting by soldiers deployed overseas, abolished the right of resident aliens to vote in state elections, banned the teaching of foreign languages in public schools (an anti-German measure), and passed a constitutional amendment to fix defects in previous state-owned enterprise amendments.

December 2-4, 1919 – Gov. Norbeck called a special session to ratify the federal 19th Amendment, guaranteeing women’s suffrage.

June 21, 1920 – Gov. Norbeck called another general session to increase state spending and consider his proposals for state-owned enterprises.

June 22 – July 1, 1927 – Gov. W. J. Bulow, a Democrat, had vetoed the Republican legislature’s budget, which he believed overspent and was not properly balanced.  The State Legislature failed to pass a budget before it adjourned, and challenged Bulow’s right to veto the General Appropriations Act.  After the Supreme Court upheld Bulow’s veto, he called the legislature back into session to pass a state budget, successfully insisting on spending cuts.

July 31 – August 5, 1933 – With the federal repeal of the prohibition of alcohol, Gov. Tom Berry called a special session to legalize 3.2 beer and to tax its sale as a new revenue source during the depths of the Great Depression.

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Tom Berry

December 21-24, 1936 – Gov. Berry, a lame duck who had been defeated by Leslie Jensen in the November 1936 general election, called a special session to enact state legislation related to the implementation of the federal Social Security Act.

The session was overshadowed by U.S. Senator Peter Norbeck’s death on December 20, and by speculation about how Berry would fill Norbeck’s seat.  Berry was widely known to have ambitions to serve in the U.S. Senate himself, and hoped to resign as Governor so that Lt. Governor Robert Peterson could succeed Berry as Governor and then appoint Berry to the Senate.  The plan was derailed, however, when Peterson was arrested for embezzling from his Centerville bank.  Instead, Berry appointed Herbert Hitchcock, a 69-year old former state senator, with the understanding that Hitchcock would step aside in Berry’s favor at the next election.  Hitchcock ran for reelection in 1938, however, and Berry had to run in the Democratic primary against his own appointee.  Although Berry defeated Hitchcock, he lost the general election to Yankton businessman Chan Gurney, a Republican.

June 10-12, 1944 – Gov. M. Q. Sharpe called a special session to enact legislation allowed deployed soldiers to vote in the 1944 election.

February 6-16, 1950 – Gov. George T. Mickelson called a special session to create public power districts and to authorize additional funds for highway construction.

May 18, 1981 – After 31 years with out a special session, Gov. Bill Janklow called three.  The first authorized a state subsidy for the first year of operations of the new state-owned rail lines.

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Bill Janklow

September 23-24, 1981 – Gov. Janklow called a special session to approve his plan to sell Missouri River water to Energy Transportation Systems Inc. (ETSI), to be used in a coal slurry pipeline from Wyoming.  The pipeline was ultimately never built, but the state received over $5 million in payments before it was canceled.

May 2-3, 1984 – Gov. Janklow called a special session to abolish the state’s nine water conservancy subdistricts and replace them with six water development districts.  The State Legislature had rejected a similar plan during the 1984 legislative session, but adopted the plan in the special session.

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George S. Mickelson

July 16, 1987 – Gov. George S. Mickelson called a special session to finalize South Dakota’s bid to host the Superconducting Super Collider, a massive proposed particle accelerator complex.  The project was ultimately awarded to Texas but was cancelled in 1993.

October 3, 1991 – Gov. Mickelson called a special session to allow the state legislature to pass a redistricting plan in response to the 1990 census.  This was the first time that a special session was called to pass a redistricting plan.

November 26, 1991 – After a few errors were discovered in the redistricting plan passed by the October 3 special session, Gov. Mickelson called a brief special session in conjunction with the Governor’s Budget Address to fix the errors.

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Walter Dale Miller

May 25, 1993 – Gov. Walter Dale Miller called a special session in the wake of the death of Gov. Mickelson in the state plane crash.  The State Legislature unanimously confirmed Miller’s appointment of Sioux Falls businessman Steve Kirby as lieutenant governor and appropriated funds for a new state airplane and for construction of the Fighting Stallions Memorial.  Miler also used the special session to request funds for prison security in the wake of a riot at the state penetentiary.

July 11-12, 1994 – In response to a Supreme Court ruling that held video lottery to be unconstitutional, Gov. Miller called a special session to place a constitutional amendment on the 1994 general election ballot authorizing video lottery.

September 9, 1994 – Gov. Miller called another special session to authorize budget cuts and the use of reserve funds, due to the loss of video lottery revenue.  Legislators rejected a proposal from Miller for a temporary one-cent sales tax to help address the shortfall.

The budget adjustments had not been made at the July special session because a pending appeal sought to allow video lottery until the election, but by September the Supreme Court had rejected that appeal.

April 14, 1997 – Gov. Janklow called a special session to impose a temporary gasoline tax to fund emergency road repairs as a consequence of massive flooding in northeastern South Dakota.

December 28-29, 2000 – Gov. Janklow called a special session to authorize the sale of the state cement plant and to create a trust fund with the proceeds of the sale.

October 23-24, 2001 – Gov. Janklow called a special session to allow for legislative redistricting.

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Mike Rounds

June 26-27, 2003 – Gov. Mike Rounds called a special session to create a health insurance high risk pool.  The risk pool replaced an earlier system called “guaranteed issue,” whereby health insurance companies were each required to accept a share of high-risk insureds.  Several health insurance providers had left the South Dakota market rather than continue to accept high-risk insureds, and the new risk pool was allowed more health insurers to operate in South Dakota.

October 14, 2005 – Gov. Rounds called a special session to appropriate $19 million to the Science and Technology Authority for construction of a laboratory facility at the former Homestake Mine in Lead.

October 24, 2011 – Gov. Dennis Daugaard called a special session to allow for legislative redistricting.

June 12, 2017 – Gov. Daugaard has called a special session in order to consider recommendations from an interim legislative committee on the authorization of recreational uses of non-meandered waters.  The longstanding issue gained urgency after a Supreme Court opinion prohibited state game, fish, and parks officials from facilitating access to these waters.

Daugaard had in fact called another special session, to be held on June 22, 2013, to appropriate $10 million to complete construction of a new veterans’ home in Hot Springs.  The special session was canceled after the federal Veterans Administration gave the state more time to use federal funding, which allowed for the project design to be modified in a way that reduced costs.  This is the only time that a special session has been called, but canceled before it was held.